Tabletop Transduction Modeling Activity – Hour 7

Step 2: Create Your Models

Create your two models and take a photo of each. Your two examples should be color-coded and labeled according to the following guidelines:

  • Signaling Molecule(s) – Green
  • Receptor – Pink
  • Transduction Sequence – Orange
  • Second Messenger(s) – Blue
  • Cellular Response(s) – Yellow

Step 3: Upload Your Images

Use the “Choose Files” feature to upload a comment with your two images. Include both of your names and a brief description of each image as your comment.

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24 Responses to Tabletop Transduction Modeling Activity – Hour 7

  1. Nate & Maria says:

    Epinephrine makes the liver release sugar for energy. Protein Kinases are triggered which activate molecules of the enzyme glycogen. The enzyme then releases sugar in the form of glucose.

    • Nate & Maria says:

      A protein kinase activates a gene and allows for a new protein to be made. Epinephrine has an effect on the metabolism to make sugar in the form of glucose by breaking down glycogen.

  2. Emily Yohon and Marcella Yates says:

    Metabolism:
    The signal molecule (epinephrine) activates the receptor protein located in the membrane of the cell. Epinephrine causes a transduction sequence involving the second messenger of cAMP causing it to come into contact with another cellular protein which results in the formation of three protein kinases. One protein kinase comes into contact with the enzyme of glycogen phosphorylase, caused by ATP. This enzyme then disassembles the glucose molecules within the cell.

  3. Sophia Peng and Serena Xiao says:

    Rearrangement of the Cytoskeleton: The activator goes into the receptor, releasing ATP so that the signal-transduction pathway can release calcium ions into the cytoplasm. These calcium ions activate calmodulin (a protein) which grows the microtubules and changes the cell shape.

    Modulation of Gene Activity: The signaling molecule fits into the receptor which creates a series of reactions where a protein kinase enters the Nucleus and creates mRNA from DNA and a new protein is created from the mRNA.

  4. Shruthi Venkatachalam and Mayan Bhagavan says:

    The first picture represents alteration of metabolism. In this method, the signaling molecule epinephrine attaches to the receptor which causes a cascade of protein kinases, which eventually activates the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase, This enzyme splits glycogen molecules, which releases sugar in the form of glucose-1-phosphate.

    The second picture represents rearrangements of the cytoskeleton. In this method, the signaling molecule attaches to the receptor, allowing the flow of calcium ions from the ER into the cytoplasm. These ions activate the protein calmodulin, which triggers the assembly of microtubules.

  5. Emily F. and Olivia B. says:

    Alteration of metabolism: When epinephrine is released it activates the enzyme that is on the membrane. Then, this creates a series of reactions that ends up releasing sugar from the phosphorylation of glucose.

    Rearrangement of the cytoskeleton: IP3 travels from the membrane to a protein on the endoplasmic reticulum. This makes Calcium ions release into the membrane. Then the microtubules alter their shape because of these ions.

  6. Raghav Rao and Kaylee Kytasaari says:

    Rearrangement of the Cytoskeleton:

    A signal molecule meets the receptor, causing the receptor to be phosphorylated. This causes IP3 to travel to the ion gate channel on the ER, and opens it up, releasing calcium ions. The calcium ions travel to the microtubules, triggering the assembly of microtubules that alter the shape of the cell.

    Metabolism:

    Epinephrine joins the G protein receptor molecule. The message is sent to adenylyl cyclase, which triggers a series of protein kinases. This process eventually releases sugar.

  7. Mary Waxman and Lily Torres says:

    ALTERATION OF METABOLISM
    The signal receptor receives the signal molecule and activates a G protein. The G protein then goes through a transduction sequence where ATP is turned into cAMP and goes through a series of protein kinase reactions to finally activate a glycogen phosphorylase that breaks up glucose.

    REARRANGEMENT OF CYTOSKELETON
    A set of signal molecules activate a signal receptor (tyrosine-kinase receptor) that produces ATP and separates an IP3. The IP3 molecule then attaches to a Calcium ion pump that releases Calcium ions from the Endoplasmic Reticulum to a receptor on the microtubules that then extend towards the outside of the cell. The cell shape is then altered, adjusting to the grown microtubules.

  8. Emily Yohon and Marcella Yates says:

    Cytoskeleton:
    A signal molecule activates the receptor in the membrane, and causes the receptor to close and receive phosphate groups from ATP which activates a protein molecule which is part of the signal transduction pathway, which cleaves apart a molecule resulting in IP3 which travels down to a gated channel opening in the ER, allowing calcium ions to flow into the cytoplasm. The calcium then activates a protein which relocates on top of microtubules and causes them to grow and rearrange the cell shape.

  9. Sidney G and Nate S says:

    Alteration of Metabolism: This is how epinephrine it’s the fight or flight hormone causes the liver to release sugar to create energy. This is done by triggering the protein kinases which eventually activate the enzyme glycogen phosphorylase. This releases sugar in glucose 1 phosphate.
    Rearrangement of Cytoskeleton: This is how the cytoskeleton can be arranged when a signal transduction pathway releases calcium ions into the cytoplasm. The ions activate the protein calmodulin which creates the assembly of microtubules which alters the shape of the cell

  10. Sofia Zelinski and Amelia Roberts says:

    Sofia Zelinski and Ameila Roberts
    The signaling molecule activates the tryosine-kinases receptor activates the enzyme which produces a second messenger of IP3 which activates the ER. The cytoskeleton can be rearranged when the ER releases a flood of calcium ions into the cytoplasm. These ions activate a protein called calmodulin, which triggers the assembly of microtubules that alter the shape of the cell.

  11. Shriya & Vedha says:

    In the Alteration of Metabolism image the epinephrine hormone activates protein kinases by forming GTP and in the end allowing cAMP to activate the kinases. This then allows the protein kinases to activate glycogen phosphorylase which in turn releases sugar.

    In the Rearrangement of the Cytoskeleton, the ATP acts on the tyrosine kinase receptor which causes a reaction that in turn allows IP3 to travel to the ER. This allows the calcium ions to be released into the cytoplasm and then attach to the microtubules which changes the shape of the cytoskeleton.

  12. Emily Yohon and Marcella Yates says:

    Cytoskeleton:
    A signal molecule activates the receptor in the membrane, and causes the receptor to close and receive phosphate groups from ATP which activates a protein molecule which is part of the signal transduction pathway, which cleaves apart a molecule resulting in IP3 which travels down to a gated channel opening in the ER, allowing calcium ions to flow into the cytoplasm. The calcium then activates a protein which relocates on top of microtubules and causes them to grow and rearrange the cell shape.

  13. Sofia Zelinski and Amelia Roberts says:

    A protein kinases might activate a gene and trigger the synthesis of a new protein. The protein then directs cell metabolism.

  14. Rachel and Jake says:

    During metabolism epinephrine causes the liver to release sugar into the blood for energy. That then triggers the production of protein kinase which then go on to activate glycogen phosphorylase.

  15. Rachel and Jake says:

    The rearrangement of the cytoskeleton occurs when a signal transduction pathway releases calcium ions into the cytoplasm. They then activate a protien called calmodulin which assembles microtubules that alter the cell shape.

  16. Gabby Beilfuss, Lauryn Garlington says:

    Gabby Beilfuss, Lauryn Garlington
    Metabolism – Epinephrine activates the reactor. This triggers protein kinases, which activate glycogen phosphorylase. The glycogen phosphorylase creates glucose-1-phosphate, which is moved into the blood and used for energy in cells involved with the fight-or-flight response.

    Rearrangement of the Cytoskeleton – The tyrosine-kinase receptor is activated and sends IP3 to bond with an ion channel in the ER membrane. The calcium ions are released and activate calmodulin, a protein that triggers the assembly of microtubules. When the microtubules grow, they change the shape of the cell.

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